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Laws of Badminton

LAWS OF BADMINTON

DEFINITIONS

PlayerAny person playing Badminton.

MatchThe basic contest in Badminton between opposing sides each of one or two players.

SinglesA match where there is one player on each of the opposing sides.

DoublesA match where there are two players on each of the opposing sides.

Serving sideThe side having the right to serve.

Receiving sideThe side opposing the serving side.

RallyA sequence of one or more strokes starting with the service, until the shuttle ceases to be in play.

StrokeA movement of the player's racket with an intention to hit the shuttle.

1. COURT AND COURT EQUIPMENT

1.1The court shall be a rectangle marked out with lines 40 mm wide as shown in Diagram A.

1.1.1The court for Wheelchair Badminton shall be as shown in Diagrams D and E, respectively.

1.1.2For Standing Badminton classes playing half-court the court for singles shall be as shown in Diagram F.

1.2The lines marking out the court shall be easily distinguishable and preferably be coloured white or yellow.

1.3All the lines shall form part of the area which they define.

1.4The posts shall be 1.55 metres in height from the surface of the court and shall remain vertical when the net is strained as provided in Law 1.10.

1.5The posts shall be placed on the doubles side lines as in Diagram A irrespective of whether singles or doubles is being played. The posts or its supports shall not extend into the court beyond the side lines.

1.6The net shall be made of fine cord of dark colour and even thickness with a mesh of not less than 15 mm and not more than 20 mm.

1.7The net shall be 760 mm in depth and at least 6.1 metres wide.

1.8The top of the net shall be edged with a 75 mm white tape doubled over a cord or cable running through the tape. This tape shall rest upon the cord or cable.

1.9The cord or cable shall be stretched firmly, flush with the top of the posts.

1.10The top of the net from the surface of the court shall be 1.524 metres at the centre of the court and 1.55 metres over the side lines for doubles.

1.11There shall be no gaps between the ends of the net and the posts. If necessary, the full depth of the net at the ends shall be tied to the posts.

DIAGRAM A

Diagram A

Note:

  1. Diagonal length of full court = 14.723m
  2. Court as shown above can be used for both singles and doubles play
  3. ** Optional testing marks as shown in Diagram B.

2. SHUTTLE

2.1The shuttle shall be made of natural and / or synthetic materials. From whatever material the shuttle is made, the flight characteristics generally shall be similar to those produced by a natural feathered shuttle with a cork base covered by a thin layer of leather.

2.2Feathered Shuttle

2.2.1The shuttle shall have 16 feathers fixed in the base.

2.2.2The feathers shall have a uniform length between 62 mm to 70 mm when measured from the tip to the top of the base.

2.2.3The tips of the feathers shall lie on a circle with a diameter from 58 mm to 68 mm.

2.2.4The feathers shall be fastened firmly with thread or other suitable material.

2.2.5The base shall be 25 mm to 28 mm in diameter and rounded on the bottom.

2.2.6The shuttle shall weigh from 4.74 to 5.50 grams.

2.3Non-Feathered Shuttle

2.3.1The skirt, or simulation of feathers in synthetic materials, shall replace natural feathers.

2.3.2The base shall be as described in Law 2.2.5.

2.3.3Measurements and weight shall be as in Laws 2.2.2, 2.2.3 and 2.2.6. However, because of the difference in the specific gravity and other properties of synthetic materials in comparison with feathers, a variation of up to 10 per cent shall be acceptable.

2.4Subject to there being no variation in the general design, speed and flight of the shuttle, modifications in the above specifications may be made with the approval of the Member Association concerned, in places where atmospheric conditions due to either altitude or climate make the standard shuttle unsuitable.

3. TESTING A SHUTTLE FOR SPEED

3.1To test a shuttle, a player shall use a full underhand stroke which makes contact with the shuttle over the back boundary line. The shuttle shall be hit at an upward angle and in a direction parallel to the side lines.

3.2A shuttle of correct speed will land not less than 530 mm and not more than 990 mm short of the other back boundary line as in Diagram B.

DIAGRAM B

Diagram B

4. RACKET

4.1The racket shall be a frame not exceeding 680 mm in overall length and 230 mm in overall width consisting of the main parts described in Laws 4.1.1 to 4.1.5 as illustrated in Diagram C.

4.1.1The handle is the part of the racket intended to be gripped by a player.

4.1.2The stringed area is the part of the racket with which it is intended that a player hits the shuttle.

4.1.3The head bounds the stringed area.

4.1.4The shaft connects the handle to the head (subject to Law 4.1.5).

4.1.5The throat (if present) connects the shaft to the head.

DIAGRAM C

Diagram C

4.2The stringed area:

4.2.1shall be flat and consist of a pattern of crossed strings either alternately interlaced or bonded where they cross. The stringing pattern shall be generally uniform and, in particular, not less dense in the centre than in any other area; and

4.2.2shall not exceed 280 mm in overall length and 220 mm in overall width. However, the strings may extend into an area which otherwise would be the throat, provided that:

4.2.2.1the width of the extended stringed area does not exceed 35 mm; and

4.2.2.2the overall length of the stringed area does not then exceed 330 mm.

4.3The racket:

4.3.1shall be free of attached objects and protrusions, other than those used solely and specifically to limit or prevent wear and tear, or vibration, or to distribute weight, or to secure the handle by cord to the player's hand, and which are reasonable in size and placement for such purposes; and

4.3.2shall be free of any device that makes it possible for a player to change materially the shape of the racket.

5. EQUIPMENT AND COMPLIANCE

5.1Compliance

The Badminton World Federation shall rule on any question of whether any racket, shuttle or equipment or any prototype used in the playing of Badminton complies with the specifications. Such ruling may be undertaken on the Federation's initiative or on application by any party with a bona fide interest, including any player, technical official, equipment manufacturer or Member Association or member thereof.

5.2Additional equipment for Para-Badminton

For Para-badminton, a wheelchair or a crutch may be used.

5.2.1A player's body may be fixed to the wheelchair with an elastic belt.

5.2.2A wheelchair may be equipped with supporting wheels, which may extend beyond the main wheel.

5.2.3The player's feet must be fixed to the footrest of the wheelchair.

6. TOSS

6.1Before play commences, a toss shall be conducted and the side winning the toss shall exercise the choice in either Law 6.1.1 or 6.1.2:

6.1.1to serve or receive first;

6.1.2to start play at one end of the court or the other.

6.2The side losing the toss shall then exercise the remaining choice.

7. SCORING SYSTEM

7.1A match shall consist of the best of three games, unless otherwise arranged (Part II Section 1B Appendix 2 and 3).

7.2A game shall be won by the side which first scores 21 points, except as provided in Law 7.4 and 7.5.

7.3The side winning a rally shall add a point to its score. A side shall win a rally, if the opposing side commits a 'fault' or the shuttle ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of the court inside the opponent's court.

7.4If the score becomes 20-all, the side which gains a two point lead first, shall win that game.

7.5If the score becomes 29-all, the side scoring the 30th point shall win that game.

7.6The side winning a game shall serve first in the next game.

8. CHANGE OF ENDS

8.1Players shall change ends:

8.1.1at the end of the first game;

8.1.2at the end of the second game, if there is to be a third game; and

8.1.3in the third game when a side first scores 11 points.

8.2If the ends are not changed as indicated in Law 8.1, it shall be done so as soon as the mistake is discovered and when the shuttle is not in play. The existing score shall stand.

9. SERVICE

9.1In a correct service,

9.1.1neither side shall cause undue delay to the delivery of the service once the Server and the receiver are ready for the service;

9.1.2on completion of the backward movement of the server's racket head, any delay in the start of the service (Law 9.2) shall be considered to be an undue delay;

9.1.3the server and the receiver shall stand within diagonally opposite service courts (Diagram A) without touching the boundary lines of these service courts;

9.1.3.1In Para-badminton Wheelchair and Standing Classes playing half-court, Diagram D and F, respectively, apply.

9.1.4some part of both feet of the server and the receiver shall remain in contact with the surface of the court in a stationary position from the start of the service (Law 9.2) until the service is delivered (Law 9.3);

9.1.4.1In Wheelchair Badminton: from the start of the service and until the service is delivered, the wheels of the server and the receiver must be stationary, except the natural counter movement of the server's wheelchair.

9.1.5the server's racket shall initially hit the base of the shuttle;

9.1.6the whole shuttle shall be below the server's waist at the instant of being hit by the server's racket. The waist shall be considered to be an imaginary line round the body, level with the lowest part of the server's bottom rib;

9.1.6.1In Wheelchair Badminton, the whole shuttle shall be below the server's armpit at the instant of being hit by the server's racket;

9.1.6.2For Fixed Height Experiment: The whole of the shuttle shall be below 1.10 metres from the surface of the court at the instant of being hit by the server's racket.

9.1.7the shaft and the racket head of the server's racket at the instant of hitting the shuttle shall be pointing in a downward direction.

9.1.8the movement of the server's racket shall continue forwards from the start of the service (Law 9.2) until the service is delivered (Law 9.3);

9.1.9the flight of the shuttle shall be upwards from the server's racket to pass over the net so that, if not intercepted, it shall land in the receiver's service court (i. e. on or within the boundary lines); and

9.1.10in attempting to serve, the server shall not miss the shuttle.

9.2Once the players are ready for the service, the first forward movement of the server's racket head shall be the start of the service.

9.3Once started (Law 9.2), the service is delivered when the shuttle is hit by the server's racket or, in attempting to serve, the server misses the shuttle.

9.4The server shall not serve before the receiver is ready. However, the receiver shall be considered to have been ready if a return of the service is attempted.

9.5In doubles, during the delivery of service (Law 9.2, 9.3), the partners may take up any positions within their respective courts, which do not unsight the opposing server or receiver.

10. SINGLES

10.1Serving and receiving courts

10.1.1The players shall serve from, and receive in, their respective right service courts when the server has not scored or has scored an even number of points in that game.

10.1.2The players shall serve from, and receive in, their respective left service courts when the server has scored an odd number of points in that game.

10.1.3In Para-badminton Classes playing half-court, the server and receiver shall serve from and receive in their respective service courts.

10.2Order of play and position on court

In a rally, the shuttle may be hit by the server and the receiver alternately, from any position on that player's side of the net, until the shuttle ceases to be in play (Law 15).

10.3Scoring and serving

10.3.1If the server wins a rally (Law 7.3), the server shall score a point. The server shall then serve again from the alternate service court.

10.3.2If the receiver wins a rally (Law 7.3), the receiver shall score a point. The receiver shall then become the new server.

11. DOUBLES

11.1Serving and receiving courts

11.1.1A player of the serving side shall serve from the right service court when the serving side has not scored or has scored an even number of points in that game.

11.1.2A player of the serving side shall serve from the left service court when the serving side has scored an odd number of points in that game.

11.1.3The player of the receiving side who served last shall stay in the same service court from where he served last. The reverse pattern shall apply to the receiver's partner.

11.1.4The player of the receiving side standing in the diagonally opposite service court to the server shall be the receiver.

11.1.5The players shall not change their respective service courts until they win a point when their side is serving.

11.1.6Service in any turn of serving shall be delivered from the service court corresponding to the serving side's score, except as provided in Law 12.

11.2Order of play and position on court

After the service is returned, in a rally, the shuttle may be hit by either player of the serving side and either player of the receiving side alternately, from any position on that player's side of the net, until the shuttle ceases to be in play (Law 15).

11.3Scoring and serving

11.3.1If the serving side wins a rally (Law 7.3), the serving side shall score a point. The server shall then serve again from the alternate service court.

11.3.2If the receiving side wins a rally (Law 7.3), the receiving side shall score a point. The receiving side shall then become the new serving side.

11.4Sequence of serving

In any game, the right to serve shall pass consecutively:

11.4.1from the initial server who started the game from the right service court

11.4.2to the partner of the initial receiver.

11.4.3to the partner of the initial server

11.4.4to the initial receiver,

11.4.5to the initial server and so on.

11.5No player shall serve or receive out of turn, or receive two consecutive services in the same game, except as provided in Law 12.

11.6Either player of the winning side may serve first in the next game, and either player of the losing side may receive first in the next game.

12. SERVICE COURT ERRORS

12.1A service court error has been made when a player:

12.1.1has served or received out of turn; or

12.1.2has served or received from the wrong service court;

12.2If a service court error is discovered, the error shall be corrected and the existing score shall stand.

13. FAULTS

It shall be a 'fault':

13.1if a service is not correct (Law 9.1);

13.2if in service, the shuttle:

13.2.1is caught on the net and remains suspended on its top;

13.2.2after passing over the net, is caught in the net; or

13.2.3is hit by the receiver's partner;

13.3if in play, the shuttle:

13.3.1lands outside the boundaries of the court (i. e. not on or within the boundary lines);

13.3.2fails to pass over the net between the netposts;

13.3.3touches the ceiling or side walls;

13.3.4touches the person or dress of a player;

13.3.4.1In Para-badminton a Wheelchair or Crutch is considered part of the player's person.

13.3.5touches any other object or person outside the court;

(Where necessary on account of the structure of the building, the local badminton authority may, subject to the right of veto of its Member Association, make bye-laws dealing with cases in which a shuttle touches an obstruction).

13.3.6is caught and held on the racket and then slung during the execution of a stroke;

13.3.7is hit twice in succession by the same player. However, a shuttle hitting the head and the stringed area of the racket in one stroke shall not be a 'fault';

13.3.8is hit by a player and the player's partner successively; or

13.3.9touches a player's racket and does not travel towards the opponent's court;

13.4if, in play, a player:

13.4.1touches the net or its supports with racket, person or dress;

13.4.2invades an opponent's court over the net with racket or person except that the striker may follow the shuttle over the net with the racket in the course of a stroke after the initial point of contact with the shuttle is on the striker's side of the net;

13.4.3invades an opponent's court under the net with racket or person such that an opponent is obstructed or distracted;

13.4.4obstructs an opponent, i.e. prevents an opponent from making a legal stroke where the shuttle is followed over the net;

13.4.5deliberately distracts an opponent by any action such as shouting or making gestures;

13.4.6in Wheelchair Badminton

13.4.6.1at the moment the shuttle is hit no part of the players' trunk is in contact with the seat of the wheelchair.

13.4.6.2if the fixation of a foot to the footrest is lost.

13.4.6.3during play, the player touches the floor with any part of the feet.

13.5if a player is guilty of flagrant, repeated or persistent offences under Law 16.

14. LETS

14.1'Let' shall be called by the umpire, or by a player (if there is no umpire), to halt play.

14.2It shall be a 'let', if:

14.2.1the server serves before the receiver is ready (Law 9.4);

14.2.2during service, the receiver and the server are both faulted;

14.2.3after the service is returned, the shuttle is:

14.2.3.1caught on the net and remains suspended on its top, or

14.2.3.2after passing over the net is caught in the net;

14.2.4during play, the shuttle disintegrates and the base completely separates from the rest of the shuttle;

14.2.5in the opinion of the umpire, play is disrupted or a player of the opposing side is distracted by a coach;

14.2.6a line judge is unsighted and the umpire is unable to make a decision; or

14.2.7any unforeseen or accidental situation has occurred.

14.3When a 'let' occurs, play since the last service shall not count and the player who served last shall serve again.

15. SHUTTLE NOT IN PLAY

A shuttle is not in play when:

15.1it strikes the net or post and starts to fall towards the surface of the court on the striker's side of the net;

15.2it hits the surface of the court; or

15.3a 'fault' or a 'let' has occurred.

16. CONTINUOUS PLAY, MISCONDUCT & PENALTIES

16.1Play shall be continuous from the first service until the match is concluded, except as allowed in Laws 16.2 and 16.3, and, for Wheelchair Badminton, 16.5.3.

16.2Intervals:

16.2.1not exceeding 60 seconds during each game when the leading score reaches 11 points; and

16.2.2not exceeding 120 seconds between the first and second game, and between the second and third game shall be allowed in all matches.

(For a televised match, the Referee may decide before the match that intervals as in Law 16.2 are mandatory and of fixed duration).

16.3Suspension of play

16.3.1When necessitated by circumstances not within the control of the players, the umpire may suspend play for such a period as the umpire may consider necessary.

16.3.2Under special circumstances the Referee may instruct the Umpire to suspend play. In Para-Badminton, repair of additional equipment for para-badminton (Law 5.2) may be considered a special circumstance.

16.3.3If play is suspended, the existing score shall stand and play shall be resumed from that point.

16.4Delay in play

16.4.1Under no circumstances shall play be delayed to enable a player to recover strength or wind or to receive advice.

16.4.2The umpire shall be the sole judge of any delay in play.

16.5Advice and leaving the court

16.5.1Only when the shuttle is not in play (Law 15), shall a player be permitted to receive advice during a match.

16.5.2No player shall leave the court during a match without the umpire's permission, except during the intervals as described in Law 16.2.

16.5.3In Wheelchair Badminton, a player may be allowed to leave the court for one additional interval during a match in order to catheterise. The player shall be accompanied by a refereeany BWF appointed Technical Official.

16.6A player shall not:

16.6.1deliberately cause delay in, or suspension of, play;

16.6.2deliberately modify or damage the shuttle in order to change its speed or its flight;

16.6.3behave in an offensive manner; or

16.6.4be guilty of misconduct not otherwise covered by the Laws of Badminton.

16.7Administration of breach

16.7.1The umpire shall administer any breach of Law 16.4.1, 16.5.2 or 16.6 by:

16.7.1.1issuing a warning to the offending side;

16.7.1.2faulting the offending side, if previously warned. One such fault followed by a warning by a side shall be considered to be a persistent offence; or

16.7.1.3faulting the offending side in cases of flagrant offence or breach of Law 16.2.

16.7.2On faulting a side (Law 16.7.1.2 or 16.7.1.3), the umpire shall report the offending side immediately to the Referee, who shall have the power to disqualify the offending side from the match.

17. OFFICIALS AND APPEALS

17.1The Referee shall be in overall charge of the tournament or championship(s) of which a match forms part.

17.2The umpire, where appointed, shall be in charge of the match, the court and its immediate surrounds. The umpire shall report to the Referee.

17.3The service judge shall call service faults made by the server should they occur (Law 9.1.2 to 9.1.8).

17.4A line judge shall indicate whether a shuttle landed 'in' or 'out' on the line(s) assigned.

17.5An official's decision shall be final on all points of fact for which that official is responsible except that if:

17.5.1in the opinion of the umpire, it is beyond reasonable doubt that a line judge has clearly made a wrong call, the umpire shall overrule the decision of the line judge;

17.5.2an Instant Review System is in operation, the Referee system in operation shall decide on any line call challenge using the system (Appendix 7).

17.6An umpire shall:

17.6.1uphold and enforce the Laws of Badminton and, especially, call a 'fault' or a 'let' should either occur;

17.6.2give a decision on any appeal regarding a point of dispute, if made before the next service is delivered;

17.6.3ensure players and spectators are kept informed of the progress of the match;

17.6.4appoint or replace line judges or a service judge in consultation with the Referee;

17.6.5where another technical official is not appointed, arrange for that official's duties to be carried out;

17.6.6where an appointed official is unsighted, carry out that official's duties or play a 'let';

17.6.7record and report to the Referee all matters relating to Law 16; and

17.6.8refer to the Referee all unsatisfied appeals on questions of law only. (Such appeals must be made before the next service is delivered or, if at the end of the match, before the side that appeals has left the court.)

DIAGRAM D

Diagram D

DIAGRAM E

Diagram E

DIAGRAM F

Diagram F

DIAGRAM D

Diagram D

DIAGRAM E

Diagram E

DIAGRAM F

Diagram F

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